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Thursday, November 20

  1. page home edited Please * Please check out ... at http://listentalk.weebly.com. *
    Please* Please check out
    ...
    at http://listentalk.weebly.com. *
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    1:53 pm
  2. page home edited Please check out the new website I am building at http://listentalk.weebly.com.
    Please check out the new website I am building at http://listentalk.weebly.com.
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    1:53 pm

Sunday, June 22

  1. page Parent Q & A edited Parent Q & A ... be best. 2. My child speaks our home language without difficulty but ma…
    Parent Q & A
    ...
    be best.
    2. My child speaks our home language without difficulty but makes speech sound mistakes in English. Does this mean he has a speech sound disorder?A: Probably not. Speech sound disorders occur whenever the child speaks, no matter what the language is. This may be a second language issue, which is not a disorder. However, it is hard for me to say definitively without hearing the child.
    3. Why do different therapists use different methodologies? How can you say that whistle/straw therapy or another methodology does not work when another therapist says it does?A: This is a complex issue. Therapists have varying familiarity with research and evidence to support or disprove a strategy. Some therapists graduated from school many years ago and have not updated their strategies. Companies sell materials with claims that they will work, and therapists may believe them without looking into the research or lack of research. Other companies market workshops teaching strategies that they claim will work for certain disorders, especially apraxia, and again there may be a problem with therapists taking them at their word. The American Speech-Language-Hearing Association (ASHA) recognizes this problem and has commissioned various studies and established committees to address this problem. Those committees have summarized the research and tried to get the word out about therapies that are not proven or are even disproven, but it is up to each therapist to accept the evidence.
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    8:32 am
  2. page Parent Q & A edited Parent Q & A 1. We use a different language at home. Should we stop using our home language n…
    Parent Q & A
    1. We use a different language at home. Should we stop using our home language now that our child has a speech sound disorder?A: The research supports continuing to use the home language. Exposure to two language does not contribute to speech sound disorders. However, exposure to heavily accented English can contribute to speech sound disorders. Children need to develop a strong mental representation of words and sound combination rules. If words sound differently from one person to another, that makes it harder for children to organize the sounds and use them correctly. I would generally encourage a family to use the language with which the parents are most fluent. If they speak English without an accent, great. If not, maybe using the home language would be best.
    2. My child speaks our home language without difficulty but makes speech sound mistakes in English. Does this mean he has a speech sound disorder?A: Probably not. Speech sound disorders occur whenever the child speaks, no matter what the language is. This may be a second language issue, which is not a disorder. However, it is hard for me to say definitively without hearing the child.

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    8:25 am

Thursday, April 24

  1. page Development edited People ask me about developmental norms, because we know that the Sanders 1972 norms are unrealisti…
    People ask me about developmental norms, because we know that the Sanders 1972 norms are unrealistic. Here is a chart of the Grunwell 1987 norms. As you can see, kids are saying nearly all speech sounds by age 4. We don't care about the two "th" sounds, because they typically do not impact intelligibility. The black lines represent 75% of kids; the pink lines represent 90% of kids. Grunwell has a pretty reasonable expectation for kids, because it focuses on omissions and substitutions. It does not focus on distortions, which is great, because we do not focus on distortions either.
    ...
    of "norms."
    You
    You will see
    I find the Prather, Hedrick, and Kern norms intriguing. They are two-position norms, measuring accuracy of sounds in initial and final position. I think that tells you a lot. Medial position is often measured with sounds in blends, such as the stimulus word "window" on the GFTA-2. If you are a cluster reducer, you will likely say winnow or widow, and does that really tell us anything about the /n/ and /d/ sounds? Initial and final singleton consonants are much more useful developmental information. Note that phoneme-focused norms tell us nothing about pattern errors. A child who deletes final consonants will be recorded as unable to say /p, t, k/ etc., when the phonemes are really not the problem. That makes the norms report later development for sounds, when the sound may truly be produced by the child in other contexts, such as initial position. Process or pattern errors are much more useful to us when we consider eligibility, because they relate to intelligibility.
    {grunwell1987phonologialprocesses.jpg} {grunwell1987phonologialprocesses.pdf}
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    8:46 am
  2. page Development edited People ask me about developmental norms, because we know that the Sanders 1972 norms are unrealisti…
    People ask me about developmental norms, because we know that the Sanders 1972 norms are unrealistic. Here is a chart of the Grunwell 1987 norms. As you can see, kids are saying nearly all speech sounds by age 4. We don't care about the two "th" sounds, because they typically do not impact intelligibility. The black lines represent 75% of kids; the pink lines represent 90% of kids. Grunwell has a pretty reasonable expectation for kids, because it focuses on omissions and substitutions. It does not focus on distortions, which is great, because we do not focus on distortions either.
    ...
    of "norms." You
    You
    will see
    ...
    greatly differs.
    I find the Prather, Hedrick, and Kern norms intriguing. They are two-position norms, measuring accuracy of sounds in initial and final position. I think that tells you a lot. Medial position is often measured with sounds in blends, such as the stimulus word "window" on the GFTA-2. If you are a cluster reducer, you will likely say winnow or widow, and does that really tell us anything about the /n/ and /d/ sounds? Initial and final singleton consonants are much more useful developmental information. Note that phoneme-focused norms tell us nothing about pattern errors. A child who deletes final consonants will be recorded as unable to say /p, t, k/ etc., when the phonemes are really not the problem. That makes the norms report later development for sounds, when the sound may truly be produced by the child in other contexts, such as initial position. Process or pattern errors are much more useful to us when we consider eligibility, because they relate to intelligibility.

    {grunwell1987phonologialprocesses.jpg} {grunwell1987phonologialprocesses.pdf}
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    8:46 am
  3. page Development edited {grunwell1987phonologialprocesses.jpg} People ask me about developmental norms, because we know …
    {grunwell1987phonologialprocesses.jpg}People ask me about developmental norms, because we know that the Sanders 1972 norms are unrealistic. Here is a chart of the Grunwell 1987 norms. As you can see, kids are saying nearly all speech sounds by age 4. We don't care about the two "th" sounds, because they typically do not impact intelligibility. The black lines represent 75% of kids; the pink lines represent 90% of kids. Grunwell has a pretty reasonable expectation for kids, because it focuses on omissions and substitutions. It does not focus on distortions, which is great, because we do not focus on distortions either.
    There is much disagreement on developmental norms. Every study is different, which is because they collect data in different ways. Here is a link to a variety of "norms." You will see that the studies generally agree that stops, nasals, and /w/ are earlier developing, and "th" is later developing, but the ages differ, and development of other consonants sometimes greatly differs.
    {grunwell1987phonologialprocesses.jpg}
    {grunwell1987phonologialprocesses.pdf}
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    8:40 am
  4. page Development edited {grunwell1987phonologialprocesses.pdf} {grunwell1987phonologialprocesses.jpg} {grunwell1987phon…
    {grunwell1987phonologialprocesses.pdf}{grunwell1987phonologialprocesses.jpg} {grunwell1987phonologialprocesses.pdf}
    (view changes)
    8:27 am
  5. page Development edited {grunwell1987phonologialprocesses.pdf}
    {grunwell1987phonologialprocesses.pdf}
    (view changes)
    8:24 am

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